Thursday, March 19, 2020

Battle of Resaca de la Palma - Mexican-American War

Battle of Resaca de la Palma - Mexican-American War Battle of Resaca de la Palma - Dates Conflict: The Battle of Resaca de la Palma was fought May 9, 1846, during the Mexican-American War (1846-1848). Armies Commanders Americans Brigadier General Zachary Taylor2,222 menMexicansGeneral Mariano Aristaapprox. 4,000-6,000 men Battle of Resaca de la Palma - Background: Having been defeated at the Battle of Palo Alto on May 8, 1846, Mexican General Mariano Arista elected to withdraw from the battlefield early the next morning. Retreating down the Point Isabel-Matamoras road, he sought to prevent Brigadier General Zachary Taylor from advancing to relieve Fort Texas on the Rio Grande. In looking for a position to make a stand, Arista sought terrain which would negate Taylors advantage in light, mobile artillery which had played a critical role in the previous days fighting. Falling back five miles, he formed a new line at Resaca de la Palma (Resaca de la Guerrero) (Map). Here the road was hemmed in by thick chaparral and trees on either side which would negate the American artillery while providing cover for his infantry. In addition, where the road cut through the Mexican lines, it passed through a ten-foot deep, 200-foot wide ravine (the resaca). Deploying his infantry into the chaparral on either side of the resaca, Arista placed a four-gun artillery battery across the road, while holding his cavalry in reserve. Confident in the disposition of his men, he retired to his headquarters in the rear leaving Brigadier General RÃ ³mulo DÃ ­az de la Vega to oversee the line. Battle of Resaca del Palma - The Americans Advance: As the Mexicans departed Palo Alto, Taylor made no immediate effort to pursue them. Still recovering from the May 8 fight, he also hoped that additional reinforcements would join him. Later in the day, he elected to push forward but decided to leave his wagon train and heavy artillery at Palo Alto to facilitate more rapid movement. Advancing along the road, the lead elements of Taylors column encountered the Mexicans at Resaca de la Palma around 3:00 PM. Surveying the enemy line, Taylor immediately ordered his men forward to storm the Mexican position (Map). Battle of Resaca de la Palma - The Armies Meet: In an attempt to repeat the success of Palo Alto, Taylor ordered Captain Randolph Ridgely to move forward with the artillery. Advancing with skirmishers in support, Ridgelys gunners found it slow going due to the terrain. Opening fire, they had difficulty spotting targets in the heavy brush and were nearly overrun by a column of Mexican cavalry. Seeing the threat, they switched to canister and drove off the enemy lancers. As the infantry advanced through the chaparral in support, command and control became difficult and the fighting quickly degenerated into a series of close-quarter, squad-sized actions. Frustrated by the lack of progress, Taylor ordered Captain Charles A. May to charge the Mexican battery with a squadron from the 2nd US Dragoons. As Mays horsemen moved forward, the 4th US Infantry began probing Aristas left flank. Surging down the road, Mays men succeeded in overrunning the Mexican guns and inflicted losses among their crews. Unfortunately, the momentum of the charge carried the Americans a quarter mile further south allowing the supporting Mexican infantry to recover. Charging back north, Mays men were able to return to their own lines, but failed to retrieve the guns. Though the guns had not been seized, Mays troopers succeeded capturing Vega and several of his officers. With the Mexican line leaderless, Taylor promptly ordered the 5th and 8th US Infantry to complete the task. Advancing towards the resaca, they launched into a determined fight to take the battery. As they began to drive back the Mexicans, the 4th Infantry succeeded in finding a path around Aristas left. Lacking leadership, under heavy pressure on their front, and with American troops pouring into their rear, the Mexicans began to collapse and retreat. Not believing that Taylor would attack so soon, Arista spent most of the battle in his headquarters. When learning of the 4th Infantrys approach, he raced north and personally led counterattacks to halt their advance. These were repulsed and the Arista was forced to join the general retreat south. Fleeing the battle, many Mexicans were captured while the remainder re-crossed the Rio Grande. Battle of Resaca de la Palma - Aftermath: The fighting for the resaca cost Taylor 45 killed and 98 wounded, while Mexican losses totaled around 160 killed, 228 wounded, and 8 guns lost. Following the defeat, Mexican forces re-crossed the Rio Grande, ending the siege of Fort Texas. Advancing to the river, Taylor paused until crossing to capture Matamoras on May 18. Having secured the disputed territory between the Nueces and Rio Grande, Taylor halted to await further reinforcements before invading Mexico. He would resume his campaign that September when he moved against the city of Monterrey. Selected Sources Palo Alto Battlefield National Historical Park: Resaca de la PalmaHandbook of Texas: Battle of Resaca de la PalmaUS Army Center for Military History: Guns Along the Rio GrandeTrudeau, Noah Andre. A Band of Demons Fights for Texas. Military History Quarterly Spring 2010: 84-93.

Monday, March 2, 2020

How to Write an Outstanding College Application Essay

How to Write an Outstanding College Application Essay The college application essay is an essential part of the admissions process. However, when Prompt.com reviewed thousands of application essays, the company noticed that the average essay was rated C.  A report by the National Association for College Admission Counseling found that grades in college prep courses were the most important factor, followed by admission test scores. However, the application essay was ranked much higher than recommendations from counselors and teachers, class rank, the interview, extracurricular activities and many other factors. Since the college application essay is so important, ThoughtCo spoke with several experts to discover the best ways to write one that will win over college admissions officers. Why the College Application Essay is So Important So many elements are included in the application process that students may wonder why they need to worry about the essay. Brad Schiller, co-founder and CEO of Prompt.com, tells ThoughtCo that many applicants to the same schools may have comparable grades and test scores. â€Å"However, the essay is the differentiator; its one of the few pieces of an application over which a student has direct control, and it provides readers with a sense of who the student is, how the student will fit in at the school, and how successful the student will be both in college  and upon graduation.† And for students with an uneven profile, the college application essay may provide a chance to shine. Christina DeCario, the associate director of Admissions at the College of Charleston, tells ThoughtCo that the essay provides clues about a student’s writing skills, personality and preparedness for college. She advises students to view the essay as an opportunity. â€Å"If your profile is a little uneven, like you’re successful outside the classroom but your grades aren’t quite there, or you’re the valedictorian but you’re not a good test taker, the essay can push you from a maybe to a yes,† DeCario explains. How to Choose a Topic According to Schiller, such topics as the student’s goals, passions, personality, or periods of personal growth are all good areas in which to start brainstorming. However, he says that students rarely select topics in these areas. Cailin Papszycki, director of college admissions programs at Kaplan Test Prep agrees, and says the aim of the essay is to present the student as thoughtful and mature. â€Å"The key is to inspire using a personal story that captures this quality.† Papszycki believes that transformational experiences are great topics. â€Å"For example, did you overcome extreme shyness by shining in the school musical production? Did a family crisis change your outlook on life and make you a better child or sibling?† When students can tell a sincere and persuasive story, Papszycki says colleges believe they can bring distinct experiences to the college environment. Creativity is also a good tool to employ when writing the essay. Merrilyn Dunlap, interim director of Admissions at Clarion University of Pennsylvania, tells ThoughtCo, â€Å"I still remember reading an essay about why the orange flavored tic tac is the best tic tac to eat.† She also recalls an essay that was written when the MasterCard â€Å"priceless† ads were popular. â€Å"The student opened the essay with something like: Cost to visit five college campuses $200. Application fees for five colleges $300 Moving away from home for the first time priceless In addition, Dunlap says she likes to see essays on why a student chose a particular field of study because these types of essays tend to bring out the student’s emotions. â€Å"When they write about something that they are passionate about, it is in their favor; they become real to us.† So, what types of topics should be avoided? Schiller cautions against any subject that could portray the student negatively. â€Å"Some common poor choices of topics we see are getting poor grades due to lack of effort, depression or anxiety that you have not overcome, conflicts with other people that went unresolved, or poor personal decisions,† he warns. Do’s and Don’ts to Writing a College Application Essay After choosing a compelling topic, our panel of experts offer the following advice. Create an outline.  Schiller believes that it’s important for students to organize their thoughts, and an outline can help them structure their thoughts. â€Å"First, always start with the end in mind – what do you want your  reader  to think after reading your essay?† And, he recommends using the thesis statement to quickly get to the essay’s main point. Don’t write a narrative. While Schiller admits that the college essay should provide information about the student, he warns against a long, rambling account. â€Å"Stories and anecdotes are an integral part of showing your reader who you are, but a good rule of thumb is to make these no more than 40% of your word count and leave the rest of your words for reflection and analysis.† Have a conclusion. â€Å"So many essays start off well, the second and third paragraphs are solid, and then they just end,† laments DeCario. â€Å"You need to explain why you told me all the things you wrote about earlier in the essay; relate it to yourself and the essay question.† Revise early and often. Don’t just write one draft and think you’re done. Papszycki says the essay will need to undergo several revisions – and not just to catch grammatical errors. â€Å"Ask your parents, teachers, high school counselors or friends for their eyes and edits.† She recommends these individuals because they know the student better than anyone else, and they also want the student to succeed. â€Å"Take their constructive criticism in the spirit for which they intend - your benefit.† Proofread to the max. DeCario recommends having someone else proofread it. And then, she says the student should read it out loud. â€Å"When you proofread, you should check for grammar and sentence structure; when someone else proofreads, they will be looking for clarity in the essay; when you read it out loud, you’ll catch errors or even entire missing words like ‘a’ or ‘and’ that you didn’t catch when you read it in your head.† Don’t cram for the essay. Start early so there will be plenty of time. â€Å"The summer before senior year can be a great time to start work on your essay,† Papszycki explains. Use humor judiciously. â€Å"It’s fine to use wit and imagination, but dont try to be humorous if thats not your personality,† Papszycki advises. She also warns against forcing humor because it can have an unintended effect.  Ã‚   Additional Tips For students who want more information on ways to write a stellar college application essay, Schiller recommends a persona.prompt.com quiz that helps students identify their personas, and also an essay outlining tool.

Saturday, February 15, 2020

Writing 102 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words - 1

Writing 102 - Essay Example This is a very effective story in which a shed is used to convey man’s feelings of dissatisfaction and unclear sense of direction. It also explains that how dreams can be achieved if a person is totally motivated. â€Å"Number XII is a wooden shed who becomes conscious before he is even built, when he is just a pile of planks. Early in his assembled life he stores bicycles, and the bicycles radiate their essence into him. Through this unexplained but strangely buyable phenomenon, Number XII learns about and comes to desire the adventures, mobility and freedom of bicycles. Alas, sheds seem to be confined to a hierarchy only comprising different versions of them, like a garage. This is too bad. Number XII really wants to be a bicycle.† (Fearless Stories) The story Cane Brake brings forward in its true sense a variety of themes. It discusses the problems caused in families due to marriage. It helps explain that the people are usually not satisfied with their lives. Also it highlights the problems which women face in the African family systems. To begin with Kacem is a drunkard. He is not particularly satisfied with the life he is leading and instead has resorted to keeping distance with his wife and drinking. He is seen to not only ignoring his wife but also forcing set of rules and regulations over her and binding her into the primitive shackles of family where a woman could not go out. His role is extremely significant in the flow of the novel. The change in Kacem in the end highlights the power of women to bring about change. It also helps to elaborate the fact that drinking and such socially unacceptable habits can affect your behaviour and can also be a source of discomfort for your family. The other major character in this story is Kacem’s wife. She symbolizes a typical woman in the African and Asian countries where they cannot mostly go out of their homes and are bound by their husband’s orders. These restrictions and the drunken

Sunday, February 2, 2020

UK MEDICAL LAW Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

UK MEDICAL LAW - Essay Example the fact that medical professionals are deemed ready, willing and able to provide medical treatment and advice and by implication are bound to have the necessary skill and knowledge of a reasonable medical professional.3 A registered medical professional offering his or her service is held to this standard.4 In addition, Lord Brown Wilkinson held in Wilsher v Essex Area Health Authority 1987] Q.B 730, CA [1998] AC 1074 that health authorities owe a duty of care to patients in their care.5 The question then turns on whether or not there was a breach of the standard and duty of care assigned to the medical profession on the part of Doctor Greene and/or Wilington hospital.. In determining whether or not there was a breach of the duty and standard of care, the Bolam test is applied. In Bolam v Friem Hospital Management Committee [1957] 1 WLR 582 the court devised a two-tier test to determine whether or not the medical professional or institution breached the applicable standard and duty of care.6 The first leg of the test inquires into whether or not the defendant professional acted in a manner that corresponds with the reasonable skilled person or vocation of the profession at issue.7 The second leg of the test inquires into whether or not the treatment or advice administered was consisted with a body of opinion in the profession.8 In ascertaining whether or not Doctor Greene, acting on behalf of and on the authority of the hospital complied with the Bolam standard of care, the court will look to the circumstances in which the treatment was administered and the attending physician’s post or position.9 On the facts of the case for discussion there is no specific evidence of Dr. Green’s position or post within the hospital, except that he is from the casualty department. The question then turns on whether or not a doctor in the emergency room who specializes in the treatment of children would have taken the action that Dr. Green took. Dr. Green

Saturday, January 25, 2020

The Idiot Savant Essay -- Exploratory Essays Research Papers

The Idiot Savant   Ã‚  Ã‚   An idiot savant is defined as a person who is incredibly adept at one particular skill but is completely incapable in other aspects of life such as learning, reading, writing and decision making. The term idiot savant was applied to people with this disorder in 1887 by Dr. J. Langdon Down. The term idiot savant is basically an oxymoron. "Idiot" means someone who is in a class of people with an IQ less than 25, and "savant" comes from French and literally means "learned one." People can be born idiot savants, or it can be acquired later in life, even as late as adulthood. The major mystery with idiot savants is that they don't learn the knowledge they have, they just mysteriously have it.    Many people who are idiot savants are autistic. Approximately ten percent of people with autistic disorder have some savant skills. Only one percent of people with other forms of mental disability have savant skills. However, since other forms of mental disability are more common than autism, it turns out that fifty percent of idiot savants have au...

Thursday, January 16, 2020

Health Policy Week

Could it be that the healthcare system wants the issue to rise because that is how they make their money, or is it because not enough studies or programs exist for those people who have no insurance and can't get the necessary help they need to attack the problem? This paper will talk about and confront the many problems and concerns of obesity and will depict how the healthcare personnel can address the situation. II. Identifying Patients at Risk A. Economic despair and the geographic locations play a major part in obesity In America. African Americans are the race that is feeling the oppression of obesity.B. Blacks, those who are middle-aged, and lower-income adults continue to be the groups with the highest obesity rates. The healthcare law could help reduce obesity among low-income Americans if the uninsured sign up for coverage and take advantage of the free obesity screening and counseling that most insurance companies are required to provide under the law (Sharpe, 2013). Ill. Obesity and the Health Policy A. ) Many health officials are offering nutrition advice for obese patients but been proven ineffective at the individual levels. B. Obesity causes many chronic illnesses. Some illnesses include diabetes, high blood pressure, liver diseases, and some form of cancers to name a few. IV. Increased Health Cost Caused by Rising Obesity A. ) Surgeries are being done to assist people with losing weight. Gastric banding and gastric bypass surgery are what personnel are relying on to lose weight and the cost isn't cheap. B. ) Obesity healthcare cost is staggering in the United States. Physicians are probably putting the disease on the bottom of their to-do list because that is where they are making their money.

Wednesday, January 8, 2020

Investment appraisal should add value to business entity - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 6 Words: 1866 Downloads: 4 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Business Essay Type Argumentative essay Did you like this example? Successful companies are always keen to develop and grow by investing in the new projects to sustain and maintain their strategic position in the competitive market. Therefore companies always adopt strategic planning approach also known as corporate planning for long-term which in result gives direction to the company. One of the key areas in Strategic planning is strategic decision making by the senior management, to manage the available funds by the firm , right choice of investments by using strategic analysis approach and considering whether the options meet and are consistent with the firms objectives and are acceptable to main stakeholders.. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Investment appraisal should add value to business entity" essay for you Create order Financial Management analyse their available options of investments by focusing on the size of the funds need to commit to purchase lands, buildings etc, expected inflows and outflows in the future, life span of the investment and degree of risk involved in the investment. Then the management select the best possible options which are economical and profitable for the firm. This approach is known as investment appraisal. The investment appraisal process is concerned with assessing the value of future cash flows compared to cost of investment. The above discussed investment appraisal approach also contributes and on the following aspects of the business. Replacing the obsolete assets with newly developed assets. Enhancement of current products and development of new products. Increase in existing market share and introduction of new markets. Objective based fair decision making by analysing all possible alternatives Investments in profitable projects which adds value to the business. Realistic budgeting and cash flow forecasting. Considers risk involved in the projects. Therefore it can be clearly seen that Investment Appraisal approach in decision making also adds value to the Business along with selecting the most economical and profitable choices for the business in long term. Calculate payback period, NPV and IRR for each project. For each of the above methods which projects should be selected and explain why? Payback Period Method Project A Project B Year Net Cash flow Cumulative Cash flow Net Cash flow Cumulative Cash flow 0 (10,000) (10,000) (25,000) (25,000) 1 3,000 (7,000) 6,500 (18,500) 2 3,000 (4,000) 7,000 (11,500) 3 3,000 (1,000) 7,500 (4,000) 4 3,000 2,000 7,500 3,500 5 3,000 5,000 8,000 11,500 Payback period 3.33years 3.53years The above results shows that payback period of initial outlay of project A is 3.3 years which means 3 years and 4 months whereas the payback period of investments of project B is 3.5 years which means almost 3years and six months and in longer than project A, therefore projects A is more feasible compare to Project B in terms of payback of initial investment. Net Present Value Project A Year Cash flow DF @ 12.5% Present Value 0 (10,000) 1.000 (10,000) 1 3,000 0.889 2,667 2 3,000 0.790 2,370 3 3,000 0.702 2,106 4 3,000 0.624 1,872 5 3,000 0.555 1,665 NPV pound;680 Project B Year Cash flow DF @ 12.5% Present Value 0 (25,000) 1.000 (25,000) 1 6,500 0.889 5,779 2 7,000 0.790 5,530 3 7,500 0.702 5,265 4 7,500 0.624 4,680 5 8,000 0.555 4,440 NPV pound;694 Based on the Net Present Value calculation both projects have positive NPV and therefore will be suitable for the investments and will generate profits for the firm in future. We will therefore select to invest in project B because it has high NPV compare to project A. Internal Rate Of Return Project A Year Cash flow DF @ 10% Present Value 0 (10,000) 1.000 (10,000) 1 3,000 0.909 2727 2 3,000 0.826 2478 3 3,000 0.751 2253 4 3,000 0.683 2049 5 3,000 0.621 1863 NPV @ 10% pound;1,370 IRR= 10+ 1370 x (12.5-10) 1370-680 14.96% Project B Year Cash flow DF @ 10% Present Value 0 (25,000) 1.000 (25,000) 1 6,500 0.909 pound;5,909 2 7,000 0.826 pound;5,782 3 7,500 0.751 pound;5,633 4 7,500 0.683 pound;5,123 5 8,000 0.621 pound;4,968 pound;2,414 IRR= 10+ 2414 x (12.5-10) 2414-694 13.51% As indication from the above results of IRR, Project A would be accepted by project manager and potential investors. In both projects, cost of capital is same i.e. 12.5% but IRR of project A is 14.96% compare to 13.51% of project B. As per general rule, if resulted IRR is more than the interest rate then it should be acceptable but in our given scenario we will invest in project A because it has more difference between IRR and its cost of capital compare to project B. D) Explain why it is essential that discounted cash flow should be calculated when making Long Term Investment decisions. Discounted cash flow analysis is a procedure whereby the value of future cash flows are discounted back to present values using the discounted rate based on the cost of the capital available for the project, so that the economic values of future cash flows are comparable despite of timing difference. In the dearth of discounted future cash flows, resulted NPV and IRR will not appraise the project in real term and will not reflect the true picture of the investment appraisal. The key idea behind is that the value of money decline over time period due to the impact of inflation factor in eroding spending power. Investors normally like to receive their money back as soon as possible because it creates opportunities to invest new and upcoming ventures. In contrast, short term investment for instance the project for the year or less, the cash flows do not need to discount back and not require dealing with inflation .It is therefore essential to discount the cash flow so the impact of inflation and taxation on cash flows can be incorporated in projecting long term investments. E) What would happen to the NPV if; The cost of capital increased The cost of capital decreased The Net Present Value uses discounting to compute the present value of all future cash flows linked with the project The Net Present Value rely on the cash flow pattern and cost of capital which is applied. Any changes in the cash flows or in cost of capital will directly affect the resulted NPV and therefore project implementation as well. If cash flows are stagnant and cost of capital is variable then NPV will be indirectly proportional to the cost of capital. . If cost of capital increases, it affects discount factor and present value of future cash flows will decrease resulting lower NPV until reaches to negative NPV in which case investment of project will be rejected. If the cost of capital decreases then NPV will increase as can be seen in the following illustration on given date of Project B. Project B Year Cash flow PV @ 10% PV @ 12.5% PV @ 15% 0 (25,000) (25,000) (25,000) (25,000) 1 6,500 5,909 5,779 5,649 2 7,000 5,782 5,530 5,292 3 7,500 5,633 5,265 4,928 4 7,500 5,123 4,680 4,290 5 8,000 4,968 4,440 3,832 pound;2,414 pound;694 (pound;1,010) F) Explain why the NPV of relatively long term project is more sensitive to change in cost of capital than is the NPV of a short term project. One of the drawbacks of using NPV as capital budgeting specially for long term project is to accurately calculate discount rate for the project life. The NPV based on the estimated future cash flows which are to be discounted back to their present value by using discount rates whereas investments do not need to discounted because of time 0 .Also during calculating NPV of the project there can be multiple key variables which would be sensitive and the smallest changes produces the biggest results in project NPV. In reality project may have several variables which can be affected the resulted NPV and are sensitive for the project but if we concentrate and observe only the discount rate in isolation we can find that even minor change in discount rate can either adversely affect or improve the resulted NPV of the project. Therefore to select an appropriate interest rate is quite significant In the above table, we can observe as discount rates changes from 10% to 15%, the resulted NPV also changes from positive pound;2,414 to negative pound;1,010 which will not be acceptable to investors. The interest rate used for discounted should be equal to required rate of return which means that if investments would have invest to best available project or lower cost of financing .To establish effective and stable discount rate for long term projects hardly is an exact science. In real term discount rate may vary every year or even change during the year due to inflation and risk. In short term projects, inflation and risk factors do not affect a lot to interest rate comparatively in long term projects where these can affect the interest rate for each year. If we incorporate the different discount rates for each year this made NPV more complex model so lower rate of interest would be more appropriate to the extent that a long term project implies secure income stream. G) How does change in cost of capital affects the projects IRR? IRR uses discounting in a slightly different way to determine the profitability of an investment. The IRR is defined as the discount rate at which NPV value equals zero. For example in Project B, an investment yields net present value of pound;694 when discounted as 12.5 %. When we reduced the rate of interest to 10% then the resulted NPV rise to pound;2,414 and IRR was 13.51% which depicts the efficient and break even interest rate for the investment. As per general rule, IRR should be more than the discount rate then the company should invest in the project. Project B Year Cash flow PV @ 10% PV @ 12.5% PV @ 15% 0 (25,000) (25,000) (25,000) (25,000) 1 6,500 5,909 5,779 5,649 2 7,000 5,782 5,530 5,292 3 7,500 5,633 5,265 4,928 4 7,500 5,123 4,680 4,290 5 8,000 4,968 4,440 3,832 pound;2,414 pound;694 (pound;1,010) IRR= 10+ 2414 x (12.5-10) 2414-694 13.51% IRR= 10+ 694 x (15-12.5) 694+1010 15.40% As it is evident in the above calculation that if discount rate changes to then resulted IRR also changes. At 12.5% and 10% discount rates IRR is 13.51% compare to IRR of 15.40% when uses NPV by discounting at 12.5 % and 15% . In both cases IRR is higher than the discount rates and is acceptable for the project. But margin of change in interest rate second scenario is only 0.40% which can be highly risky in volatile market. h) Compare the effectiveness of NPV method with that of IRR method. There are different approaches in capital budgeting which can be used which can used investment appraisal. NPV and IRR are most popular approaches and two faces of same coin and but there are some key limitations in both approaches. The investment on the project is accepted if NPV is greater than zero after ranking NPVs of all the projects and normally provide clear indication whether to accept or reject the project whereas IRR is accepted if it is greater than cost of capital, both approaches gives different results. NPV gives result in real term means in currency whereas IRR is represented in percentage which is easy for project managers to compare with required rate of return , interest rare and inflation rate. IRR percentage can also use for managerial appraisal during divisional performance. Research also shows that NPV approach is preferred to IRR because it also incorporates and calculates additional wealth which IRR does not cover. IRR also does not give the freedom to discount the cash flows at different discount rates which is possible in the case of NPV method. If cash flows are fluctuating and inconsistent, IRR does not seems to be conclusively applicable in these circumstances where as NPV method would pose no challenge to this problem as it will take the net effect of all cash outflow and inflow and will provide the average return of the investment NPV and IRR both are difficult in the context of to estimate the accurate discount rate to use. This leads problem towards risk premium which affect the riskiness of the project. Therefore alternative approaches of investment appraisal should also be considered like sensitivity analysis, profit. In small projects Net Present Value and IRR does not generally employed. Normally projects involves variety of risks and different methods are used which gives better understating regarding the returns of investments and practical benefits of IRR and NPV calls into question and put some practical limitation in use of these methods.